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Soldiers, Civilians, and Barbarians

War and Peace in the Roman Empire

> Participants


Dan Dana (CNRS)
Michel Reddé (EPHE-PSL)
Benoît Rossignol (Paris 1)

ANHIMA members

Jean-Michel Carrié (EHESS) ; Dan Dana (CNRS) ; Ségolène Demougin (CNRS-EPHE) ; Antony Hostein (EPHE-PSL) ; Raphaëlle Laignoux (Paris 1) ; Michel Reddé (EPHE-PSL) ; Benoît Rossignol (Paris 1)

Associate members

Pierre Cosme (Rouen) ; Anne Daguet-Gagey (Paris 8) ; Michel Molin (Paris 13) ; Xavier Lapray (dr. Paris 1)

External members

François Cadiou (Bordeaux 3) ; Vincent Drost (dr. Paris 1) ; Patrice Faure (Lyon 3) ; Christophe Hugoniot (Tours) ; Sylvain Janniard (Tours) ; Michel Kasprzyk (INRAP) ; Michael A. Speidel (Berne)

Doctoral students

Vincent N’Guyen-Van (Paris 1) ; Guillaume Sartor (EHESS)

> About

The Roman Empire was a political system born of war, both by the Roman conquest and by the civil war that brought Augustus to power. The structures of this empire are intimately tied to the military sphere by the need to defend the frontiers and to maintain control over different populations, the importance of political legitimacy based on victory, and especially the organization and presence of a professional standing army. This area of study has demonstrated great vitality and can draw on a long and consistent scholarly tradition, like that of the Limes Congress, but it has also received significant new impulses from the constant addition of new material (archeological digs, inscriptions, military diplomas...) and the integration of social and cultural history. Building on the results of the previous program (Soldiers, Civilians, and Barbarians in the Roman Empire), keeping an eye on scholarly developments in the field, the program strives to develop focused studies on particular directions and privileged topics in the hope of multiplying and integrating both perspectives and sources. The program will also be able to coordinate with the Institute of Studies on War and Peace (Institut des Études sur la Guerre et la Paix, Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne).

> Publications

1- Les familles des soldats romains, P. Cosme (dir.), Cahiers du Centre Gustave Glotz, 24, 2013, p. 205-292.

2- La place de l’État dans l’antiquité tardive dans la Gaule de L’Est. ATEG III, B. Fort, A. Hostein, M. Kasprzyk, S. Janniard, P. Nouvel (dir.), à paraître dans un supplément de la Revue Archéologique de l’Est en 2018.

3- M. Reddé (éd.), De l’or pour les braves ! Soldes, armées et circulation monétaire dans le monde romain. Actes de la table ronde organisée par l’UMR 8210 (AnHiMa) à l’Institut National d’Histoire de l’Art, 12-13 septembre 2013, Bordeaux, Ausonius (Scripta Antiqua 69).

> Projects

A- Joining the Roman Army: Recruitment, Administrative Practices, and Military Societies
Coordinator: D. Dana
Study of recruitment in the Roman army and its ethnic, legal, and sociological development is part of a long historiographical tradition: from Mommsen’s lists of soldiers to Rostovtzeff’s speculations, from the tables of Forni to current works on peoples like the Batavians, the documentation has grown exponentially and our questions have become more precise. The conditions are right for renewed studies: the significant growth of the dossier of military diplomas permits a series of studies more precise than before; archeological findings invite us to compare recruitment with material culture, with processes of acculturation, with the mobility of soldiers and their families in the Empire. Military diplomas open up areas of research on the administrative practices of the Roman army (including the creation of categories and statuses), on provincial onomastics and toponyms, on soldiers’ family life, and on the major impact of these military societies on the provinces (their presence, mobility, settlement after discharge or, on the contrary, their return to their provinces of origin).

→ Workshops:

1. Journées d’études à Paris, les 4-5 décembre 2014 : "Entrer dans l’armée romaine : bassins de recrutement des unités auxiliaires (Ier-IIe s. ap. J.-C.)" → voir le programme
2. Journée d’étude à Paris, le 18 novembre 2017 : “Mobilité, ‘dislocation’ et nouveautés en épigraphie militaire : les unités auxiliaires et l’Afrique romaine” → voir le programme

→ Publications:

1. Entrer dans l’armée romaine : bassins de recrutement des unités auxiliaires (Ier-IIe siècle après J.-C.), D. Dana, B. Rossignol (dir.), dans Revue Internationale d’Histoire Militaire Ancienne 6, 2017, p. 1-194.
B- Invasions: Historiography, Methodology, Case Studies
Coordinator: B. Rossignol
The subject of invasion has left a lasting mark on the historiography of antiquity and especially that of the Roman Empire. The context of invasion necessarily implies very special relations between soldiers, civilians, and “barbarians.” As a crucial moment, it may constitute a rupture, that permanently modifies territorial and political equilibria; it may also, on account of the damage caused by battle and raids, be seen as a cause of demographic or economic change in the affected territories. Yet invasion is not a straightforward subject of historical study, which is why we feel it is necessary to readdress the topic, both to sketch the state of the question and to grasp new questions that may arise. One part of our work will be carried out in conjunction with the program “Government and Political Cultures in the Roman Empire,” on the topic “When the Empire Withdraws”; we will also study cases of Roman invasion without lasting impact (of Mesopotamia by Trajan, Scotland under Antoninus, the projects of Marcus Aurelius – Marcomannia and Sarmatia) and cases of cases of barbarian invasion that led to Roman retreats (Dacia and the Agri Decumates).
The theme will also enable us to pursue active collaboration and follow-up with the ATEG research group (Antiquité Tardive dans l’Est de la Gaule; coordinated by M. Kasprzyk, INRAP), with which the team was associated during the period 2010-2013 under the program “Soldiers, Civilians, and Barbarians.”

→ Projected projects:

Workshops (analysis of sources, of contemporary scientific literature), study days, collaboration and joint organization, with the program « Gouvernement et cultures politiques dans l’empire romain » or "Government and political cultures in the Roman empire".

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